The Vatican Documents project presents an annotated catalogue of letters and other primary sources from early modern Europe and Africa, tracing the development of Vincent de Paul’s Congregation of the Mission over the course of the 17th century. The documents listed in this collection are drawn from the Vatican archives and illustrate the missionary activities of the Congregation from its inception (1625) to the first few years following the death of its founder, Vincent de Paul (1581-1660). They underscore a rich and complex relationship with the Roman Curia and highlight the role of the Papacy in shaping early modern religious, cultural and political frontiers in the context of the Catholic Reformation.